About 84% of couples in the general population will conceive with in 1 year if they don’t use contraception and have regular sexual intercourse. Of those who don’t conceive in the 1 st year, about half will do so in the 2nd year (Cumulative pregnancy rate 92%).
Frequency and timing of sexual intercourse
Sexual intercourse every 2to3 days optimizes the chance of pregnancy. Timing intercourse to coincide with ovulation causes stress and is not recommended.
Alcohol consumption of three to four units per day for men is unlikely to affect their fertility. Excessive alcohol intake is detrimental to semen quality.
Men who smoke should be informed that there is an association between smoking and reduced semen quality.
There is no consistent evidence of an association between consumption of caffeinated beverages(Tea, Coffee and colas) and fertility problem.
Tight underwear for men
Men should be informed that there is an association between elevated scrotal temperature and reduced semen quality, but that it is uncertain whether wearing loose – fitting underwear improves fertility.
Some Occupation involve exposure to hazards that can reduce male or female Fertility, and there fore a specific enquire about occupation should be made and appropriate advice should be offered.
Folic acid supplementation
Dietary supplementation with folic acid before conception and up to 12 weeks’ gestation reduces the risk of having a baby with Neural tube defects. The recommended dose is 0.4mg per day.